A summative evaluation is typically conducted near, or at the end of a program or program cycle. Summative evaluations seek to determine if, over the course of the intervention, the desired outcomes of a program were achieved. An “outcome” is that change, effect, or result which a program or initiative intends to achieve (See “What Counts as an “outcome” and Who Decides” ). Summative evaluations, as their name implies, offer a kind of “summary” of the value or worth of a program. Such an estimation is based on whether, and to what degree, intended outcomes have been achieved. Whereas formative evaluations are conducted near the beginning of a program, summative evaluations are conducted near or at the end of a program. Formative evaluations provide information with which to strengthen the implementation of the program. Conversely, summative evaluations determine whether the program should be continued or discontinued. (See our article “Strengthening Programs and Initiatives through Formative Evaluation”)

Summative evaluations are important because they gather and analyze data that indicate whether a program or initiative has been successful in affecting desired changes. Summative evaluations can be of use in making a case to potential funders and other stakeholders that continued support is a worthwhile investment. A word of caution: While it is important for funders to know that their investments are effective, and that desired changes are happening, summative evaluations may also provide evidence that discontinuation of a program is in order. (See “Fail Forward: What We Can Learn from Program ‘Failure’” )


Understanding Different Types of Program Evaluation

“Building Our Understanding: Key Concepts of Evaluation What is it and how do you do it” Center for Disease Control

Evaluation, Second Edition, Carol H Weiss, Prentice Hall

“Types of Evaluation You Need to Know,” by Vipul Nanda

“Making Sense of Summative Evaluation: Three Tips for Making Those “Strings” Work in Your Favor,” by Heather Stombaugh

Just the Facts: Data Collection

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